Revista historia military online dating
Chemical archaeologist Juan Pablo Ogalde and his colleagues at the University of Tarapacá in Arica, Chile, analyzed the chemical composition of hairs from 32 mummies from northern Chile, dating to the Tiwanakuan expansion, looking specifically for harmine and 5-Me O-DMT (Ogalde, Arriaza, & Soto, 2009). None of the 32 mummy hair samples tested positive for 5-Me O-DMT, and two tested positive for harmine. These results certainly appear to be inconsistent with the results of the testing of snuff powders from archeological snuff kits at other Tiwanaku sites, which tested positive for 5-Me O-DMT as well as for bufotenine and DMT. Here too we find clear evidence of the use of an Tiwanaku culture produced a variety of small carved objects that included puma and jaguar effigies, incense burners, and highly decorated snuffing tablets and tubes.
These additional ingredients are most often the leaves of any of three compañeros, companion plants—the shrub chacruna, It is in fact the companion plant that contains the potent hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine.
A quick search of ayahuasca tourist and related websites reveals virtually identical statements of this claim: “The use of Ayahuasca has been recorded over 5000 years ago by the natives of Amazon and surrounding areas,” “Ayahuasca has been known to people for over 5000 years,” “This plant medicine has been used for over 5000 years throughout the Amazonian basin,” “Ayahuasca has been used for over 5000 years.” These examples could be multiplied. Just for perspective, the date of 3000 BC would make the origins of the ayahuasca drink as old as the founding of the first Egyptian dynasty, five centuries older than the reign of the Sumerian king Gilgamesh, and almost ten centuries older than the earliest South American devices yet discovered for the ingestion of DMT-containing plants—two pipes found in association with seeds in northwest Argentina, which have been radiocarbon dated to 2130 BC, and which had residues that tested positive for DMT (Torres, 1995, p. And while it is true that the parenteral ingestion of DMT-containing plants is of considerable antiquity in South America, there is no corresponding archeological or documentary evidence prior to the eighteenth century for the combination of a DMT-containing plant with the ayahuasca vine for oral ingestion.